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||Bladder cancer and reproductive factors among women in Spain.
||Huang AT, Kogevinas M, Silverman DT, Malats N, Rothman N, TardÃ³n A, Serra C, GarcÃa-Closas R, Carrato A, Cantor KP
||Cancer Causes Control
||Hormonal factors, possibly related to reproductive characteristics, may play a role in the risk of bladder cancer among women. To study this, we investigated the effects of reproductive factors on female bladder cancer risk. Information on reproductive and other risk factors was gathered in personal interviews from 152 female cases and 166 matched controls from 18 hospitals in five regions of Spain during 1998-2001. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between bladder cancer and reproductive factors, including ever-parous status, age at first live birth, age at last live birth, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, and duration of menstruation. After adjustment for age, smoking, and high-risk occupation, ever-parous women were at decreased risk relative to nulliparous women (odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.87). There was no consistent pattern in risk with the age- or duration-related reproductive factors (e.g., age at first live birth, age at last live birth, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, and duration of menstruation) that we evaluated. Women have a lower risk of bladder cancer than men, and hormonal factors related to childbearing may play a role.