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||Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica.
||Hisada M, Maloney EM, Sawada T, Miley WJ, Palmer P, Hanchard B, Goedert JJ, Manns A
||Clin Infect Dis
||2002 Jun 15
||In a prospective study involving 150 mothers and their offspring in Jamaica, we examined maternal viral factors associated with the risk of transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Overall, the incidence of HTLV-1 infection among children was 8.3 occurrences per 1000 person-months. A higher maternal provirus level (odds ratio [OR], 1.9 per quartile) and a higher HTLV-1 antibody titer (OR, 2.2 per quartile) were independently associated with transmission to children, whereas the presence of anti-Tax antibody was not. Higher maternal antibody titers also were associated with older age at infection among children who were breast-fed for =12 months, which suggests that passively transferred maternal antibodies confer protection against infection while they persist. These data imply that mothers who have high provirus loads should be encouraged not to breast-feed. Alternatively, the successful reduction of maternal provirus loads or maintenance of passive antibody levels in infants during breast-feeding may lower the risk of transmission.