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Title: Incidence and risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma after solid organ transplantation.
Authors: Hoffmann CJ,  Subramanian AK,  Cameron AM,  Engels EA
Journal: Transplantation
Date: 2008 Sep 27
Branches: IIB
PubMed ID: 18813102
PMC ID: PMC2714173
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients commonly are infected with hepatitis viruses, are immunosuppressed, and have other potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors. METHODS: We studied de novo HCC incidence arising after transplant using U.S. registry data (223,660 recipients, 1987-2005). We used proportional hazards regression to identify HCC risk factors and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare HCC risk with that in the general population. RESULTS: Based on 74 cases reported by transplant centers to the registry, HCC incidence was 6.5 per 100,000 person-years among kidney, heart, and lung (non-liver) recipients and 25 per 100,000 person-years among liver recipients. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence among non-liver recipients was independently associated with hepatitis B surface antigenemia (hazard ratio [HR] 9.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-33), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (HR 6.9, 95% CI 2.5-19), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.6). Among liver recipients, HCC incidence was associated with advancing age (P<0.001), male sex (HR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-16), HCV infection (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.2), and diabetes mellitus (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.2). Among non-liver recipients, overall HCC incidence was similar to the general population (SIR 0.8) but elevated among those with HCV (3.4) or hepatitis B surface antigenemia (6.5). Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence among liver transplant recipients was elevated overall (SIR 3.4) and especially among those with HCV (5.0) or diabetes mellitus (6.2). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is elevated among liver transplant recipients and subsets of non-liver recipients. These risk factors indicate the need for improved control of viral hepatitis after solid organ transplantation.