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Title: Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes.
Authors: Guey LT,  García-Closas M,  Murta-Nascimento C,  Lloreta J,  Palencia L,  Kogevinas M,  Rothman N,  Vellalta G,  Calle ML,  Marenne G,  Tardón A,  Carrato A,  García-Closas R,  Serra C,  Silverman DT,  Chanock S,  Real FX,  Malats N,  EPICURO/Spanish Bladder Cancer Study investigators
Journal: Eur Urol
Date: 2010 Feb
Branches: CGR, LTG, OEEB
PubMed ID: 19692168
PMC ID: PMC3220186
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathologic, and molecular evidence indicate that bladder cancer is heterogeneous with pathologic/molecular features that define distinct subphenotypes with different prognoses. It is conceivable that specific patterns of genetic susceptibility are associated with particular subphenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To examine evidence for the contribution of germline genetic variation to bladder cancer heterogeneity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Spanish Bladder Cancer/EPICURO Study is a case-control study based in 18 hospitals located in five areas in Spain. Cases were patients with a newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed, urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder from 1998 to 2001. Case diagnoses were reviewed and uniformly classified by pathologists following the World Health Organisation/International Society of Urological Pathology 1999 criteria. Controls were hospital-matched patients (n=1149). MEASUREMENTS: A total of 1526 candidate variants in 423 candidate genes were analysed. Three distinct subphenotypes were defined according to stage and grade: low-grade nonmuscle invasive (n=586), high-grade nonmuscle invasive (n=219), and muscle invasive (n=246). The association between each variant and subphenotype was assessed by polytomous risk models adjusting for potential confounders. Heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility among subphenotypes was also tested. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Two established bladder cancer susceptibility genotypes, NAT2 slow-acetylation and GSTM1-null, exhibited similar associations among the subphenotypes, as did VEGF-rs25648, which was previously identified in our study. Other variants conferred risks for specific tumour subphenotypes such as PMS2-rs6463524 and CD4-rs3213427 (respective heterogeneity p values of 0.006 and 0.004), which were associated with muscle-invasive tumours (per-allele odds ratios [95% confidence interval] of 0.56 [0.41-0.77] and 0.71 [0.57-0.88], respectively) but not with non-muscle-invasive tumours. Heterogeneity p values were not robust in multiple testing according to their false-discovery rate. CONCLUSIONS: These exploratory analyses suggest that genetic susceptibility loci might be related to the molecular/pathologic diversity of bladder cancer. Validation through large-scale replication studies and the study of additional genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms are required.