||Geyer SM, Morton LM, Habermann TM, Allmer C, Davis S, Cozen W, Severson RK, Lynch CF, Wang SS, Maurer MJ, Hartge P, Cerhan JR
||BACKGROUND: Smoking, alcohol use, and obesity appear to increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but to the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have assessed their impact on NHL prognosis. METHODS: The association between prediagnosis cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and body mass index (BMI) and overall survival was evaluated in 1286 patients enrolled through population-based registries in the United States from 1998 through 2000. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. RESULTS: Through 2007, 442 patients had died (34%), and the median follow-up for surviving patients was 7.7 years. Compared with never smokers, former (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.12-2.26) and current (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.97-2.29) smokers had poorer survival, and poorer survival was found to be positively associated with smoking duration, number of cigarettes smoked per day, pack-years of smoking, and shorter time since quitting (all P <0.01). Alcohol use was associated with poorer survival (P = 0.03); compared with nonusers. Those drinking >43.1 g/week (median intake among drinkers) had poorer survival (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.27), whereas those drinkers consuming less than this amount demonstrated no survival disadvantage (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.75-1.71). Greater BMI was associated with poorer survival (P = 0.046), but the survival disadvantage was only noted among obese individuals (HR, 1.32 for BMI > or = 30 vs BMI 20-24.9; 95% CI, 1.02-1.70). These results held for lymphoma-specific survival and were broadly similar for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: NHL patients who smoked, consumed alcohol, or were obese before diagnosis were found to have a poorer overall and lymphoma-specific survival.