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Title: Bladder cancer risk and pipes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco.
Authors: Hartge P,  Hoover R,  Kantor A
Journal: Cancer
Date: 1985 Feb 15
Branches: EBP
PubMed ID: 3967183
PMC ID: not available
Abstract: Interview data from 2982 patients with bladder cancer and 5782 controls selected from the general population were used to assess the effects of non-cigarette tobacco use on bladder cancer risk. Compared to men who had never smoked, those who had smoked pipes but not cigars or cigarettes had a relative risk estimated at 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-2.00). Those who smoked cigars but not pipes or cigarettes were estimated to have a relative risk of 1.33 (95% CI = 0.92-1.94). Little evidence of dose response was observed. The excess relative risk to pipe smokers was limited to those who inhaled deeply.