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Title: Smoking and bladder cancer risk in blacks and whites in the United States.
Authors: Hartge P,  Silverman DT,  Schairer C,  Hoover RN
Journal: Cancer Causes Control
Date: 1993 Jul
Branches: EBP, MEB, OEEB
PubMed ID: 8347788
PMC ID: not available
Abstract: A population-based case-control study of bladder cancer (2,982 cases and 5,782 controls) conducted in 10 areas of the United States examined the effect of smoking as a risk factor among Blacks and Whites, after adjustment for occupation and other potential confounders. Although the overall risk for smoking was slightly higher in Blacks than Whites (relative risk = 2.7 and 2.2, respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. Estimation of risk by dose and currency of exposure revealed no consistent racial disparities in smoking-related risks. Race-specific, attributable risk estimates indicated that nearly half of bladder cancers among both Blacks and Whites could have been prevented by elimination of smoking.