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||Intakes of vitamin C and carotenoids and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: pooled results from 5 cohort studies.
||Fitzgerald KC, O'Reilly ÃJ, Fondell E, Falcone GJ, McCullough ML, Park Y, Kolonel LN, Ascherio A
||OBJECTIVE: Prior research has suggested the possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Prospective data examining dietary antioxidants such carotenoids and vitamin C are limited. METHODS: Risk of ALS associated with carotenoid and vitamin C intake was investigated in 5 prospective cohorts: the National Institutes of Health-Association of American Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), and the Nurses Health Study (NHS). ALS deaths were documented using the National Death Index, and confirmed nonfatal ALS cases were included from HPFS and NHS. A total of 1,153 ALS deaths occurred among 1,100,910 participants (562,942 men; 537,968 women). Participants were categorized into cohort-specific quintiles of intake for dietary variables. We applied Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate cohort-specific risk ratios (RRs), and pooled results using random-effects methods. RESULTS: A greater total major carotenoids intake was associated with a reduced risk of ALS (pooled, multivariate-adjusted RR for the highest to the lowest quintile = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.91, p for trend = 0.004). Individually, higher dietary intakes of Î²-carotene and lutein were inversely associated with ALS risk. The pooled multivariate RRs comparing the highest to the lowest quintile for Î²-carotene and lutein were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.64-1.13, p for trend = 0.03) and 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.96, p for trend = 0.01), respectively. Lycopene, Î²-cryptoxanthin, and vitamin C were not associated with reduced risk of ALS. INTERPRETATION: Consumption of foods high in carotenoids may help prevent or delay onset of ALS.