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||Emphysematous cystitis due to Clostridium perfringens and Candida albicans in two patients with hematologic malignant conditions.
||1992 Dec 1
||BACKGROUND: Fever, abdominal pain, and hematuria developed in two patients with hematologic malignant conditions (multiple myeloma and agnogenic myeloid metaplasia). Each patient was found to have emphysematous cystitis (EC), secondary to Clostridium perfringens and Candida albicans, respectively. Both patients had debilitated general medical conditions, compromised immune function, prior treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, bladder outlet obstruction, and indwelling Foley catheters as predisposing factors to EC. Neither was diabetic. METHODS: These cases provide an opportunity to review the related medical literature on the pathophysiology and management of this uncommon entity. RESULTS: Treatment consists of control of underlying diabetes (if present), administration of appropriate antibiotics, establishment of urinary drainage, provision of supportive general medical care, exclusion of the presence of a bladder fistula, and surgical debridement only when unavoidable. CONCLUSIONS: EC should be part of the differential diagnosis in patients with cancer who have fever, abdominal pain, and hematuria.