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Title: GBV-C infection and risk of NHL among U.S. adults.
Authors: Chang CM,  Stapleton JT,  Klinzman D,  McLinden JH,  Purdue MP,  Katki HA,  Engels EA
Journal: Cancer Res
Date: 2014 Oct 1
Branches: BB, IIB, OEEB
PubMed ID: 25115299
PMC ID: PMC4184918
Abstract: Some retrospective studies suggest an association between infection with GB virus-C (GBV-C) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We evaluated this association prospectively in a nested case-control study within the U.S. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Cases (N = 658) and controls (N = 1,316) were individually matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, timing of study entry, and sample selection. Prediagnostic PLCO serum samples were tested for GBV-C RNA (as a measure of active infection) and E2 antibody (active or resolved infection). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for the association between GBV-C and NHL overall and NHL subtypes. Twelve cases (1.8%) and seven controls (0.5%) were GBV-C RNA-positive. GBV-C RNA positivity was associated with NHL overall [OR, 3.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-8.71] and, based on small numbers, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 1.54-18.36). The association with NHL persisted when the interval between testing and selection was greater than 4 years (OR, 6.00; 95% CI, 1.21-29.73). In contrast, E2 antibody positivity was not associated with NHL risk (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.74-1.58). Our study demonstrates that GBV-C infection precedes development of NHL. GBV-C infection may play an etiologic role in a small proportion of NHL cases, perhaps by causing chronic immune stimulation or impaired immunosurveillance.