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Title: Risk of cancer in first- and second-degree relatives of testicular germ cell tumor cases and controls.
Authors: Chia VM,  Li Y,  Goldin LR,  Graubard BI,  Greene MH,  Korde L,  Rubertone MV,  Erickson RL,  McGlynn KA
Journal: Int J Cancer
Date: 2009 Feb 15
Branches: HREB, GEB, BB, CGB
PubMed ID: 19035442
PMC ID: PMC2605179
Abstract: Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have not been well identified; however, data suggest that risks of cancer in family members of men with TGCT is elevated. Using family history data from 738 cases and 904 controls enrolled in the U.S. Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants (STEED) Study from 2002 to 2005, the risk of cancer in first- and second-degree family members of these men was examined. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for reference age of case or control, race/ethnicity of case or control, sex of family member and lineage (maternal vs. paternal). An increased risk of all cancer among first-degree relatives of cases compared to controls was observed (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35). There were suggestions of differences in risk when stratifying all relatives by lineage. For maternal relatives, there was a statistically significant increased risk of all cancer (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.30), digestive tract (RR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15-2.00) and male genital organ cancer (RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.15-2.51); there was also a suggestion of increased risks of hematopoetic cancers, cancers in the female genital organs and nonmelanoma skin cancer. For paternal relatives, there was a statistically significant association only with decreased risk of lung cancer (RR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.51-0.94). Thus, this study suggests that there may be aggregation of cancer among families of men diagnosed with TGCT.