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||Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma.
||Brock KE, Ke L, Gridley G, Chiu BC, Ershow AG, Lynch CF, Graubard BI, Cantor KP
||Br J Nutr
||2012 Sep 28
||The association between renal cell cancer (RCC) and intake of fruit, vegetables and nutrients was examined in a population-based case-control study of 323 cases and 1827 controls; dietary intake was obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Cancer risks were estimated by OR and 95Â % CI, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, obesity, hypertension, proxy status, alcohol consumption and dietary fat intake and energy. Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0Â·5; 95Â % CI 0Â·3, 0Â·7; P trendÂ =Â 0Â·002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0Â·4; 95Â % CI 0Â·2, 0Â·6; PÂ <Â 0Â·001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0Â·7; 95Â % CI 0Â·4, 1Â·1) or grain fibre (OR 1Â·0; 95Â % CI 0Â·6, 1Â·5). Î²-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only Î²-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0Â·5; 95Â % CI 0Â·3, 0Â·8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and Î²-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (PÂ <Â 0Â·01) (OR 0Â·6; 95Â % CI 0Â·3, 0Â·9) (OR 0Â·5; 95Â % CI 0Â·3, 0Â·9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (P interactionÂ =Â 0Â·001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (P interactionÂ =Â 0Â·03); similar inverse associations were found for Î²-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only Î²-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk. These findings deserve further investigation in ongoing prospective studies when sample size becomes sufficient.