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||Glutathione S-transferase mu and theta polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility.
||García-Closas M, Kelsey KT, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Springer K, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Hunter DJ
||J Natl Cancer Inst
||1999 Nov 17
||BACKGROUND: The enzymes encoded by the glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and theta 1 (GSTT1) genes are involved in the metabolism (mainly inactivation, but activation is possible) of a wide range of carcinogens that are ubiquitous in the environment; the enzyme encoded by the GSTT1 gene may also be active in endogenous mutagenic processes. Homozygous deletions of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes are commonly found in the population and result in a lack of enzyme activity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Our study included 466 women with incident cases of breast cancer occurring from May 1989 through May 1994 and 466 matched control subjects. These individuals were part of a prospective cohort of U.S. women (i.e., the Nurses' Health Study). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. RESULTS: The GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.05 [95% CI = 0.80-1.37] for GSTM1 null; OR = 0. 86 [95% CI = 0.61-1.21] for GSTT1 null). On the contrary, a suggestion of a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with the GSTT1 null genotype was observed among premenopausal women. When considered together, no combination of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions and breast cancer risk was not substantially modified by cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence against a substantially increased risk of breast cancer associated with GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 homozygous gene deletions.