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||Cytokine and chemokine profiles following vaccination with human papillomavirus type 16 L1 Virus-like particles.
||García-Piñeres A, Hildesheim A, Dodd L, Kemp TJ, Williams M, Harro C, Lowy DR, Schiller JT, Pinto LA
||Clin Vaccine Immunol
||To determine the systemic cytokine pattern induced by vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus-like particles (VLP), we analyzed 22 different cytokines in culture supernatants of L1 VLP-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccine (n = 19) and placebo (n = 7) recipients at months 0 and 2 after vaccination, using a multiplex cytokine bead array. In vaccine recipients, incubation with L1 VLP in vitro led to a statistically significant increase in production of Th1 (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-2 [IL-2], gamma interferon; P < 0.0007) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13; P < 0.0017) cytokines and the chemokine IP-10 (P = 0.0021) at month 2 after immunization, compared to levels seen prior to vaccination. These responses were not seen in placebo recipients. Cytokine and neutralizing antibody responses to vaccination followed the same pattern, with the highest antibody responses seen for subjects with higher cytokine responses. Cytokine profiling studies using samples from efficacy trials may provide important information about discriminators of long-term protection against HPV.