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||Genetic variation in base excision repair pathway genes, pesticide exposure, and prostate cancer risk.
||Barry KH, Koutros S, Berndt SI, Andreotti G, Hoppin JA, Sandler DP, Burdette LA, Yeager M, Freeman LE, Lubin JH, Ma X, Zheng T, Alavanja MC
||Environ Health Perspect
||BB, CGR, OEEB, EBP
||BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates increased prostate cancer risk for pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers. Although underlying mechanisms are unknown, evidence suggests a role of oxidative DNA damage. OBJECTIVES: Because base excision repair (BER) is the predominant pathway involved in repairing oxidative damage, we evaluated interactions between 39 pesticides and 394 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 31 BER genes among 776 prostate cancer cases and 1,444 male controls in a nested case-control study of white Agricultural Health Study (AHS) pesticide applicators. METHODS: We used likelihood ratio tests from logistic regression models to determine p-values for interactions between three-level pesticide exposure variables (none/low/high) and SNPs (assuming a dominant model), and the false discovery rate (FDR) multiple comparison adjustment approach. RESULTS: The interaction between fonofos and rs1983132 in NEIL3 [nei endonuclease VIII-like 3 (Escherichia coli)], which encodes a glycosylase that can initiate BER, was the most significant overall [interaction p-value (pinteract) = 9.3 × 10-6; FDR-adjusted p-value = 0.01]. Fonofos exposure was associated with a monotonic increase in prostate cancer risk among men with CT/TT genotypes for rs1983132 [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for low and high use compared with no use were 1.65 (0.91, 3.01) and 3.25 (1.78, 5.92), respectively], whereas fonofos was not associated with prostate cancer risk among men with the CC genotype. Carbofuran and S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) interacted similarly with rs1983132; however, these interactions did not meet an FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: Our significant finding regarding fonofos is consistent with previous AHS findings of increased prostate cancer risk with fonofos exposure among those with a family history of prostate cancer. Although requiring replication, our findings suggest a role of BER genetic variation in pesticide-associated prostate cancer risk.