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||Healthy lifestyle behaviors and decreased risk of mortality in a large prospective study of U.S. women and men.
||Behrens G, Fischer B, Kohler S, Park Y, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF
||Eur J Epidemiol
||Adiposity, insufficient physical activity, cigarette smoking, and poor diet have all been related independently to increased chronic disease risk, but their joint impact on overall health remains unclear. In a cohort of 170,672 women and men aged 51-71Â years at baseline in 1996/1997 and followed-up through 2009, we investigated the individual and joint impact of four low-risk lifestyle factors: abdominal leanness (waist circumference <88Â cm in women and <102Â cm in men); recommended physical activity level (30Â min or more of moderate exercise at least 5 times per week or 20Â min or more of vigorous exercise at least 3 times per week); long-term non-smoking (never-smoker or quit smoking more than 10Â years ago); and healthy diet (Mediterranean diet score within the upper two sex-specific quintiles). During 2,126,089 person-years of follow-up, 20,903 participants died. In multivariate Cox models, statistically significant decreased risks of mortality were observed for the low-risk factors abdominal leanness (relative risk (RR)Â =Â 0.86; 95Â % confidence interval (CI)Â =Â 0.83-0.89), physical activity (RRÂ =Â 0.86; 95Â % CIÂ =Â 0.84-0.89), non-smoking (RRÂ =Â 0.43; 95Â % CIÂ =Â 0.42-0.45), and healthy diet (RRÂ =Â 0.86; 95Â % CIÂ =Â 0.83-0.88). The larger the number of low-risk lifestyle factors, the lower was the mortality risk. The RR comparing adherence to all versus none of the factors was 0.27 (95Â % CIÂ =Â 0.25-0.29). We estimate that 33Â % (95Â % CIÂ =Â 30-35Â %) of deaths in our cohort were premature and could have been avoided if all study participants had adhered to all low-risk factors.