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||Medical history and the risk of biliary tract cancers in Shanghai, China: implications for a role of inflammation.
||Andreotti G, Liu E, Gao YT, Safaeian M, Rashid A, Shen MC, Wang BS, Deng J, Han TQ, Zhang BH, Hsing AW
||Cancer Causes Control
||Several lines of evidence suggest that inflammation may play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers. To examine further the role of inflammation, we evaluated the associations between self-reported inflammatory-related medical conditions and the risk of biliary tract cancers in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Our analysis included 368 gallbladder cancer cases, 191 bile duct cancer cases, 68 ampulla of Vater cancer cases, and 959 healthy subjects. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for biliary tract cancers in relation to six inflammation-related conditions. Gallbladder cancer was significantly associated with cholecystitis occurring at least 5 years prior to interview (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.9). Even though biliary stones did not significantly modify the associations between cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer, 90% of the gallbladder cancer cases with cholecystitis also had biliary stones, indicating that stones likely play an important role in the link between cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer. Among subjects who smoked and drank alcohol, a history of gastric (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-15.0) or duodenal ulcers (OR = 3.7, 1.2-12.0) was associated with an excess risk of gallbladder cancer. Although the mechanisms are unclear, our results further support the role for inflammation in the etiology of biliary tract cancers.