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||Geographic variation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States.
||Altekruse SF, Petrick JL, Rolin AI, Cuccinelli JE, Zou Z, Tatalovich Z, McGlynn KA
||BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic (ICC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) are tumors that arise from cholangiocytes in the bile duct, but ICCs are coded as primary liver cancers while ECCs are coded as biliary tract cancers. The etiology of these tumors is not well understood. It has been suggested that the etiology of ICC is more similar to that of another type of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), than to the etiology of ECC. If this is true, geographic incidence patterns and trends in ICC incidence should be more similar to that of HCC than ECC. METHODS: To examine this hypothesis, data from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries Cancer in North America data file were analyzed. Incidence rates and joinpoint trends were calculated by demographic subgroup. County-level incidence rates were mapped. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates, racial distribution, male:female ratio, and peak ages were more similar between ICC and ECC than with HCC. During 2000-2009, average annual incidence rates of ECC increased. During 2005-2009, average annual ICC incidence rates also increased. High rates for all three cancer sites were found in the Pacific region, particularly Hawaii and Alaska. Rates of ICC and ECC were also high in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, while rates of HCC were high in the South. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic patterns and geographical variation were more closely related between ICC and ECC than HCC, suggesting that the etiology of ICC and ECC may be similar. Increasing rates of both tumors suggest that further etiology studies are warranted.