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||Maternal body mass index and risk of testicular cancer in male offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
||Alam SS, Cantwell MM, Cardwell CR, Cook MB, Murray LJ
||OBJECTIVES: To date a number of studies have examined the association between maternal weight and testicular cancer risk although results have been largely inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the nature of this association. METHODS: Search strategies were conducted in Ovid Medline (1950-2009), Embase (1980-2009), Web of Science (1970-2009), and CINAHL (1937-2009) using keywords for maternal weight (BMI) and testicular cancer. RESULTS: The literature search produced 1689 hits from which 63 papers were extracted. Only 7 studies met the pre-defined criteria. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted. The combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of testicular cancer in the highest reported category of maternal BMI compared with the moderate maternal BMI was 0.82 (0.65-1.02). The Cochran's Q P value was 0.82 and the corresponding I(2) was 0%, both indicating very little variability among studies. The combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) for testicular cancer risk in the lowest reported category of maternal BMI compared to a moderate maternal BMI category was 0.88 (0.65-1.20). The Cochran's Q P value was 0.05 and the corresponding I(2) was 54%, indicating evidence of statistical heterogeneity. The combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of testicular cancer risk per unit increase in maternal BMI was 1.01 (0.97-1.06). The Cochran's Q test had a P value of 0.05 and the corresponding I(2) was 55% indicating evidence of statistical heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis, which included a small number of studies, showed that a higher maternal weight does not increase the risk of testicular cancer in male offspring. Though an inverse association between high maternal BMI and testicular cancer risk was detected, it was not statistically significant. Further primary studies with adjustment for appropriate confounders are required.