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||Regulatory Variation in HIV-1 Dependency Factor ZNRD1 Associates with Host Resistance to HIV-1 Acquisition.
||An P, Goedert JJ, Donfield S, Buchbinder S, Kirk GD, Detels R, Winkler CA
||J Infect Dis
||2014 Nov 15
||BACKGROUND: ZNRD1 was identified as a host protein required for the completion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) lifecycle in a genome-wide screen using small interfering RNA gene silencing. Subsequently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of host determinants for HIV-1 disease identified an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ZNRD1 region with CD4(+) T-cell depletion. METHODS: We investigated the effects of SNPs in the ZNRD1 region on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and progression to clinical outcomes in 5 US-based HIV-1 longitudinal cohorts consisting of men who have sex with men, males with hemophilia, and injection drug users (IDUs) (n = 1865). SNP function was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and promoter luciferase assay. RESULTS: A haplotype in the ZNRD1 gene showed significant association with a 35% decreased risk of HIV-1 acquisition (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, .47-.89), independent of HLA-C rs9264942, in European Americans. The SNP rs3132130 tagging this haplotype, located in the ZNRD1 5' upstream region, caused a loss of nuclear factor binding and decrease in ZNRD1 promoter activity. ZNRD1 variants also affected HIV-1 disease progression in European- and African-American cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence that ZNRD1 polymorphism may confer host resistance to HIV-1 acquisition.